Fecal coliform in river water increased with affluence until earnings reached $1,375 per capita. “If pollution is the brother of affluence,” it has been written, then “concern about air pollution is affluence’s baby.”24 Even if some air pollution emissions rise during early economic growth, the helpful effects to human lifetime of increased production far outweigh the harmful results of the resulting air pollution, as demonstrated in declining illness and mortality charges and in rising health and life expectancy, even throughout that early stage. This excessive and ever-growing use of assets per unit of output explains the high extent of environmental disruption in socialist countries.23.
Every uncooked materials-mineral, plant, and vegetable-that performs a major function within the human economic system is extra reasonably priced (which economists acknowledge as which means more considerable), in terms of labor costs, at present than at any time up to now. A thousand years in the past, human life expectancy in all places was well under thirty years-maybe even as low as twenty-4; today, worldwide, it’s over sixty-five years, and in high-earnings economies, it is over seventy-six years. (Which means that modern farmers also manage to farm from 37 to a hundred times as many acres, thanks largely to mechanized equipment and advanced farming techniques.) As the nice French historian Fernand Braudel identified, it grew to become very difficult to maintain life when productivity in wheat fell under 2.2 kilos per man-hour.